Sumerians use cuneiform alphabet, pressed
in clay with a triangular stylus. Clay tablets were dried and/or fired for
longevity. Some even had clay envelopes, which were also inscribed. Some
consider them to be the earliest form of the book.
Date of the
earliest surviving papyrus scroll with writing.
known movable type machine is created in China.
printed his 42-line Bible in Mainz on the first printing press. He also used a
quality of handmade paper which remains unsurpassed to this day.
The first facsimile edition by Plantin, 16th
century Martyrologium Hieronymianum (engraved on copper plates).
Library of Congress
Library of Congress founded in Washington D.C.
by Tauchnitz Verlag Germany.
Sholes invents the typewriter, which is marketed by Remington.
Nazis initiate a
campaign of book burning.
Vannavar Bush dreams of a "Memex," which allows an individual to store all his
books, records, and communications, and is mechanized so that it may be
consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged supplement to
his memory. His vision will result in developments leading to the World Wide
Ted Nelson coins
the terms "hypertext" and "hypermedia" for non-sequential writings and branching
presentations of all types.
student Alan Kay develops the idea for DynaBook, a portable, interactive
personal computer, as accessible as a book.
movement that began at the Illinois Benedictine College aimed at collecting as
many texts as possible in electronic format. Now freely available over the
Internet, the texts range from simple works in the public domain to larger,
IBM, the chip served as the foundation of the Data Encryption Standard, an
algorithm used by the government and industry in order to encrypt important data
and phone conversations.
announced by IBM.
created at the University of Wisconsin, providing electronic mail to over 100
researchers in computer science.
introduces the Personal Computer.
forms the Xanadu team, who plan on creating a "connected literature" of richly
formatted text and images accessible cheaply, reliably, and securely from
anywhere in the world.
1983 Pop Up
The pop-up book, "The Human Body," is printed
by Viking Press.
Parke Lightbown builds a computer application
that runs from a computer-based version of the compact disc, previously used
exclusively for music recordings. He also instigates a standards effort among
the major industry players.
computers are introduced into the marketplace and with it the field of desktop
An online magazine featuring short science
fiction and fantasy stories arises on BITNET from the University of Maine.
Renamed DargonZine in 1988, FSFnet was posted on AOL and Delphi in 1994, and
uploaded to the Internet in 1995. After fourteen years, it remains the oldest
electronic magazine in publication.
WWW developed by
Tim Berners-Lee at CERN, the European Laboratory for Particle Physics, Geneva,
the publishing world with the Rocket eBook Publishing System.